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中(zhong)(zhong)国商周(zhou)时(shi)(shi)代(dai)青(qing)(qing)(qing)铜(tong)器的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)生象征着古代(dai)社会(hui)文明的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)标志,它(ta)是(shi)等级森严(yan)的(de)(de)(de)贵族(zu)社会(hui)崇尚礼(li)制(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)特(te)殊产(chan)物。当时(shi)(shi)用于祭神享祖、礼(li)仪交往、宴飨宾客等活动中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)称为礼(li)器。不同身(shen)份的(de)(de)(de)贵族(zu),拥(yong)有与他们地位相称的(de)(de)(de)礼(li)器。在青(qing)(qing)(qing)铜(tong)器铸(zhu)造发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)漫长时(shi)(shi)间里,青(qing)(qing)(qing)铜(tong)器种类的(de)(de)(de)繁多(duo),纹饰的(de)(de)(de)精美,铸(zhu)造技术的(de)(de)(de)完美是(shi)古人创造能(neng)力的(de)(de)(de)光(guang)辉(hui)体现。

商周(zhou)(zhou)时代(dai)青铜器的(de)(de)(de)形制有盘、觥、尊等许多(duo)种,而其(qi)中(zhong)声名最为(wei)(wei)(wei)卓著的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)鼎。它(ta)是(shi)古(gu)代(dai)贵(gui)族烹饪(ren)祭(ji)祀用的(de)(de)(de)器具,一般为(wei)(wei)(wei)圆形,有三足(zu)两耳,也有方形四足(zu)的(de)(de)(de)。因作为(wei)(wei)(wei)烹饪(ren)用,古(gu)人又(you)(you)称它(ta)为(wei)(wei)(wei)鼎镬(huo)。至后世(shi),道(dao)士用它(ta)来炼丹药。再后来,人们在(zai)庙堂(tang)中(zhong)把它(ta)用作香炉,只(zhi)是(shi)那大多(duo)已不是(shi)用青铜铸(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)了(le)。现存于台北(bei)故宫的(de)(de)(de)西(xi)周(zhou)(zhou)青铜器毛(mao)公鼎,造型(xing)(xing)古(gu)朴凝重(zhong)(zhong),足(zu)下三只(zhi)兽(shou)蹄(ti)形足(zu)敦实有力。鼎上(shang)面(mian)(mian)有32行497字的(de)(de)(de)长铭文,显(xian)示(shi)了(le)此鼎是(shi)周(zhou)(zhou)室(shi)(shi)重(zhong)(zhong)臣(chen)毛(mao)公对宣(xuan)王赋(fu)予重(zhong)(zhong)权感恩戴(dai)德(de)而铸(zhu)。现藏(zang) 于上(shang)海博物馆的(de)(de)(de)西(xi)周(zhou)(zhou)青铜器大克鼎,在(zai)兽(shou)面(mian)(mian)纹(wen)中(zhong)饰(shi)以小兽(shou)面(mian)(mian),还有凸起(qi)的(de)(de)(de)觚棱,造型(xing)(xing)亦是(shi)端庄凝重(zhong)(zhong),其(qi)290字的(de)(de)(de)长铭文显(xian)示(shi),亦为(wei)(wei)(wei)周(zhou)(zhou)室(shi)(shi)重(zhong)(zhong)臣(chen)的(de)(de)(de)师华父(fu)(fu),因周(zhou)(zhou)懿王赐其(qi)爵禄荫及其(qi)子孙,其(qi)孙为(wei)(wei)(wei)感戴(dai)、祭(ji)祀祖父(fu)(fu)的(de)(de)(de)功德(de)而铸(zhu)成此鼎。1999年(nian)5月20日(ri),在(zai)陕西(xi)秦(qin)始(shi)皇陵园东南方约(yue)200米处(chu),位于内外(wai)城垣之间的(de)(de)(de)一座陪葬坑内,又(you)(you)出(chu)土了(le)一只(zhi)重(zhong)(zhong)212公斤,高60厘米,造型(xing)(xing)厚重(zhong)(zhong)精美(mei),纹(wen)饰(shi)构图饱(bao)满的(de)(de)(de)秦(qin)代(dai)青铜鼎。陕西(xi)考(kao)古(gu)界推断此鼎为(wei)(wei)(wei)秦(qin)室(shi)(shi)宗庙之重(zhong)(zhong)器,并(bing)誉之为(wei)(wei)(wei)“秦(qin)陵第一鼎”。

自商代以(yi)(yi)来,青(qing)铜(tong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)便被作为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)权(quan)力(li)和富贵尊(zun)卑的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标志。至西周时(shi)(shi),更是(shi)以(yi)(yi)所用(yong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)及多少代表(biao)贵族(zu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)身份等(deng)级。《公羊传(chuan)(chuan)》何休注云:“天(tian)子(zi)(zi)九(jiu)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding),诸侯七,大(da)夫(fu)五,元士(shi)三。”后人因而(er)以(yi)(yi)“一言(yan)九(jiu)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)”来形容天(tian)子(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)威(wei)仪。豪贵之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)家,也(ye)因为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)有(you)击钟(zhong)列鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)而(er)食的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)豪奢排场,被称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)“钟(zhong)鸣鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)食之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)家”。由于古(gu)(gu)代帝(di)王(wang)(wang)(wang)喜在(zai)青(qing)铜(tong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)上铭(ming)刻文字以(yi)(yi)记功德,因而(er)青(qing)铜(tong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)又(you)被称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)“钟(zhong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)礼乐之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器”,汉代蔡(cai)邕认为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)它可以(yi)(yi)“昭德纪功,以(yi)(yi)示子(zi)(zi)孙(sun)”。(《铭(ming)论(lun)》)这(zhei)样,青(qing)铜(tong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)便又(you)成了(le)中国古(gu)(gu)代社会王(wang)(wang)(wang)权(quan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)象(xiang)征(zheng),国家存亡的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标志。我们(men)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)华夏之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)国,也(ye)因而(er)被称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)“钟(zhong)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)礼乐之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)邦”。据《左传(chuan)(chuan)》记载,春秋(qiu)时(shi)(shi)楚(chu)(chu)庄(zhuang)王(wang)(wang)(wang)曾率兵北伐至洛水,向周王(wang)(wang)(wang)朝炫(xuan)耀武(wu)力(li),周定王(wang)(wang)(wang)不(bu)得不(bu)派王(wang)(wang)(wang)孙(sun)满前去(qu)犒劳楚(chu)(chu)军(jun),而(er)楚(chu)(chu)庄(zhuang)王(wang)(wang)(wang)竟骄横地(di)向王(wang)(wang)(wang)孙(sun)满询问(wen)(wen)周朝传(chuan)(chuan)国之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)宝九(jiu)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)轻重。这(zhei)个“楚(chu)(chu)子(zi)(zi)问(wen)(wen)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)典故,显示了(le)楚(chu)(chu)庄(zhuang)王(wang)(wang)(wang)觊觎周室之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)意。《晋书·王(wang)(wang)(wang)敦(dun)传(chuan)(chuan)》因而(er)也(ye)云:“有(you)问(wen)(wen)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)心(xin),帝(di)畏(wei)而(er)恶之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。”“问(wen)(wen)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)”成了(le)“篡(cuan)夺”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)替代词。因为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)一般有(you)三足,于是(shi)又(you)延伸(shen)产生(sheng)了(le)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)峙、鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)立等(deng)词,以(yi)(yi)喻权(quan)力(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)并峙。在(zai)以(yi)(yi)往的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)科举制度中,又(you)将(jiang)进士(shi)一甲的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)前三名(ming)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)甲,而(er)状元居甲之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)首,又(you)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)鼎(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)元。

青铜鼎之所以具有这样的富贵身份,能够引发人们那么多有关王权和富贵的想象,首先在于其青铜造型的地正规圆,既凝重而又稳定;其次在于纹饰的繁褥富丽。当然弥漫在其造型和纹饰之间的斑斓气息,更会带给人们亘久而灿烂的联想。
自改革开放以来,我国各地制作了不少宝鼎,这些鼎已不在是权力的象征了,而是代表和平,繁荣,祥和和诚信。如:送到联合国总部的“世纪宝鼎”,为迎九七香港回归制作的“香港回归宝鼎”,澳门回归制作的“澳门回归宝鼎”,庆祝西藏和平解放50周年制作的“民族团结宝鼎”,还有为发展旅游制作的湖南衡山的“中华万寿大鼎”,河南郑州的“炎黄宝鼎”,广东肇庆的“肇庆九龙宝鼎”,为纪念邓小平诞辰100周年制作的“实事求是宝鼎”,太原建城2500周年制作的“春秋大鼎”。
这(zhei)些青铜巨鼎全由江西南宫(gong)28NG金属工艺品(pin)有(you)限公司(si)承揽制(zhi)作,被同行和(he)(he)用(yong)户赞誉为(wei)“中国(guo)鼎王”。为(wei)不(bu)辜负这(zhei)个美(mei)称,我公司(si)将不(bu)断提高制(zhi)作、设(she)计技(ji)术(shu)和(he)(he)服务质量,竭诚为(wei)社(she)会各界设(she)计、制(zhi)作更(geng)多、更(geng)精美(mei)的艺术(shu)品(pin)。